The Rules of Madd

The madd means to prolong (stretch) the sound of a vowel. There are too many rules of madd, you will learn The Letters of Madd and  The Elongation Signs of Madd in this page.

The Letters of Madd – Long Vowels

There are three letters of Madd, which are ا – و – ى

These letters prolongate of a previous vowel to the measure of two vowels (2 counts), which is equal to the measure of one alif *.

It is not possible to read a madd letter alone and these letters (long vowels) only elongate the letter by the Alif with no Harakat.

* One Alif Amount: It is the time passed, to raise one finger (without dropping) or when we spell one alif letter or twice the time spent for one haraka (Example: as much as ha –> haa)

Elongation of a Letter by the Alif (ا) with no Haraka Elongation of a Letter by the Alif with no Haraka

Usually the Alif that has no haraka comes after a letter that has fatha upon it, and it allows the letter to be read a little longer. Alif with no haraka gives an ‘a’ sound as in ‘cat, hat’ to the heavy letter and it gives an ‘e’ sound as in ‘ear’ to a light letter that it comes latter to.

قَا
kā
كَا

مِنَّا

minnā

سَامِعٌ

sāmiùn

شِمَالٌ

shimālûn

قَلَ

le

كَانَ

kāne

كَشَفْنَا

keshefnā

اَجَابَ

ecābe

فَاعَلَ

fāàle

مَازَارَ

māzāra

مَاشَانَ

māshāne

مَاصَانَ

ne

صِرَاطٌ

sırātûn

جَنَّاتٌ

cennātûn

مَاقَالَ

mākāle

سُبْحَانَكَ

sûbhāneke

تَبَارَكْتَ

tebārekte

غُفْرَانَكَ

ghufrāneke

بُرْهَانَانِ

burhānāni

Elongation of a Letter by the Ya (ي) with no Haraka Elongation of a Letter by the Ya with no Haraka

When the letter ‘Ya’ comes with no haraka and if the prior letter has Kasra upon then it elongates the prior letter a little bit. The pronunciation of the letter that comes prior to the ‘Ya’ depends whether it is a light or heavy letter. If it is a light letter then it gives an ‘ee’ sound as in ‘seed’ with a slight elongation and if it is a heavy letter then it begins with an ‘ae’ and then ends with an ‘eee’ sound.

innī
kīle
fīhi
fīhā
indī
māhī
ȟalakanī
ve’ìdûn
semī’ûn
mûhīnûn
eydīhim
merīdûn
ellezīne
dīnehûm
yezīdû
mûcībûn
rabī’ûn
burhānāni
ecma’īne

Elongation of a Letter by the Wow (و) with no Haraka Elongation of a Letter by the Wow with no Haraka

When the letter Wow comes with no haraka after a letter that has Dhammah, then it causes the letter to be pronounced a little longer. The Wow with haraka causes the prior letter to be read in ‘oo ‘sound as in ‘Mood’ if it is a heavy letter, and if the prior letter is a light letter then it reads sort of politer and longer as in ‘u’ as in ‘Mule’.

The wow with no haraka (و) can only appear at the end of the words sometimes also can appear as in (وا). They both read in the same manner, the alif does not causes for more elongation.

نُورٌ

nûrun

يَقَولُ

yekûlū

رَسُولٌ

rasûlūn

اَعُمذُ

e′ûzū

مَكْتُوبٌ

mektûbûn

كَانُو

kânû

يَفُوتُ

yefûtū

يَلِدُونَ

yelidûne

تَصِفُونَ

yesıfûne

يَتُوبُونَ

yetûbûne

مُسْلِمُونَ
mūslimûne
مُخَلَّدُونَ
muȟalledûne
تُحَاجُّونَ
tuhâccûne
يَعْمَلُونَ
yàmelûne
اَلْكَاذِبُونَ
elkâżibûne
اَلْمُفْلِحُونَ
elmuflihûne
اَلْجَبَّارُ
elcebbâru
اَلْوَارِثُونَ
elvâriṡûne
اَلْخَاسِرُونَ
elhâsirûne
مُشْرِكُونَ

mūshrikûne

In order to differentiate these elongating letters that has the property of elongating about one alif round, are shown with a hypen upon them. Example ā, ē, ī, ū

The Elongation Marks of Madd

The Straight Line The Straight line Alif Ba The Straight line

The straight little line that appear above (Hanger)or the bottom (Puller) of a letter, elongates the respective letter around one * alif amount. The straight little line pronounces the respective letter in gruffy tone if it is a heavy letter and in polite tone if it is a light letter. The wow with no haraka(و) and the Ya with no haraka(ى) are dismissed and are skipped, if they come after the straight little line.

bihī
ādeme
tāhā
zālike
āmene
lākin
hāzihī
kezālike
lākinne
suleymānu
hedā
necātûn
salātûn
zekātûn
ibrāhīme

* One Alif Amount: It is the time passed, to raise one finger (without dropping) or when we spell one alif letter or twice the time spent for one haraka (Example: as much as ha –> haa)

In order to differentiate these elongating letters that has the property of elongating about one alif round, are shown with a hypen upon them. Example ā, ē, ī, ū

Horizontal Line Horizontal Line

Elongates the letter that comes upon four alif amount.

cãè
yurãūne
yãeyyûhē
ūlãike

esh shuhedãu

teshãūne

وَمَا اَنَا

vemãenē

بِمَٓا اُنْزِلَ

bimãûnzile

كَمَا اٰمَنَ

kemã āmene

بِمَٓا اُنْزِلَ

bimãûnzile

سَوَٓاءٌ

sevãûn

يُرَٓاؤُنَ

yûrāūne

تَشَٓاؤُنَ

teshāûne

قُلْ يَٓا اَيُّهَا

kulyāeyyûhe

This elongation mark, which has four elif amount, is shown with a wavy line on our website. Example; ã, ẽ, ĩ, ũ

Test Yourself

تُورُونَ

tūrūne

اصَابَ

esābe

صِرَاطٌ

sırâtūn

كَمَٓا

kemã

تُوبُٓوا

tūbũ

يَفُوتُ

yefûtū

يَطُورُ

yetūru

اَصَابَ

esābe

صَٓافَّاتٍ

sãffetin

اِتَّقُوا

ittekū

كَٓافَّةً

kãffeten

ثَمُودُ

semūdû

غُفْرَانَكَ

ğufrâneke

يُوَٓادُّونَ

yuvãddūne

وُزَرَاءُ

vezerāu

اَلْجَبَّارُ

elcebbâru

ءُلَمَاءُ

ulemāu

تَقُولُونَ

tekūlūne

اَوْحَيْنَا

evheynā

بُرْهَانٌ

bûrhānūn