Harakat

Arabic letters are consonants and they don’t read on its own. The letters are spoken by the following signs on the top or bottom. We call this signs as harakat which means movement.
There are three harakat; fatha, kasrah, and damma.

Fatha Ustun-65px50

The Fatha sign is a small line placed above a letter. The Fatha enables the letter to produce the soft letters (blue boxes) with a short “a” sound except ع – ر – ح.

If the Fatha sign on the gruff letters (green boxes) produce a slightly more “o” sound.

اَ
a
a in care / and
بَ
ba
Ba in Bad
تَ
ta
Ta in Tan / Metal
ثَ
tha
Tha in Thanks
جَ
ja
Ja in January / Jam
حَ

hha

خَ
a
kha in Bach (name)
دَ
da
Da in Dad / Dash
ذَ

tha
Tha in That

رَ

ru
Ru in Rubber

زَ
za
Za in Zambia / Zigzag
سَ
sa
Sa in Sand
شَ
sha
Sha in Shadow
صَ

su
Su in Subject

ضَ

du
Du in Double

طَ
toh
To in Ton / Tough
ظَ
thoh
Z in the name Zorro
عَ
à
No equivalent sound in English
غَ
gha
Gh in Ghandi (name)
فَ
fa
Fa in Fat
قَ
ka
Ka in the name Kate
كَ
Ca
Ca in Cat
لَ
la
La in Land
مَ
ma
Ma in Man
نَ
na
Na in National
وَ
wa
Wa in Wax
هَ
ha
Ha in Hat / Has
ىَ
ya
Ya in Yahoo

Kasrah Esre-65px50

The Kasrah sign is a small line placed below a letter. The Kasrah gives the “ee” sound as in “deed” to the letter that it accompanies and if the letter is a soft letter (blue boxes) it reads light and if it is a gruff letter (green boxes)that it accompanies it gives a thicker “e” sound as in “soccer”.

اِ
e
E in indian
بِ
be
Be in Beat
تِ
te
Te in Team
ثِ
thi
Thi in Think
جِ
ge
Ge in Gym
حِ
he
hi in hit
خِ
ȟi
hi in hill
دِ
de
De in Deep
ذِ
thi
Thi in This
رِ
re
Ri in Marine
زِ
zi
zi in Zigzag
سِ
se
Se in Sea
شِ
she
She in Ship
صِ
si
si in silk
ضِ
di
di in divine
طِ
ti
ti in tilde / theory
ظِ
żi
ze in zebra
عِ
ì
No equivalent sound
غِ
ǧi
No equivalent sound
فِ
fi
Fi in Finger
قِ
qi
qi in qibla
كِ
ke
Ke in Keep
لِ
li
Li in List
مِ
me
Me in Mechanic
نِ
ne
Ne in Need
وِ
we
We in Wedding
هِ
he
Hi in His
ىِ
ye
Ye in Yellow or Year

Damma Otre-65px50

The Dammah sign is a small curl placed above a letter and it enables the letter to produce a short “u” sound.

The sign on the letters produce the soft letters (blue boxes) with an “u” sound like juice, Tunusia, june. The gruff letters (green boxes) produce a slightly more “o” sound like Quran, root.

اُ
o
O in Tour
بُ
bo
Bo in Book
تُ
tu
Tu in Tunisia
ثُ
tho
Tho in Thought
جُ
ju
Ju in Juice
حُ
hu
Ho in Hoot
خُ
ȟu
hu in Juan (name)
دُ
do
Do in Doll
ذُ
tho
Tho in Those
رُ
ro
Ro in Root
زُ
zo
Zo in Zoo
سُ
so
So in Solution
شُ
sho
Sho in Shoe
صُ
su
Su in Sun
ضُ
du
Du in Double
طُ
tu
To in Tongue
ظُ
żo
Zo in Zorro (name)
عُ
‘u
No equivalent sound
غُ
ghu
No equivalent sound
فُ
fo
Fo in Food
قُ
qu
Qu in Quran
كُ
co
Qu in Quran
لُ
lo
Lo in Lose
مُ
mo
Mo in Mobile
نُ
no
No in Note
وُ
wo
Wo in Woo
هُ
ho
Ho in Hope
ىُ
yo
Yo in You

Test Yourself

صَ
sa
(in Sand)
ثَ
tha
(in Thanks)
كَ
ka
(in the name Kate)
جَ

ce

مَ
ma
(in Man)
هَ
ha
(in Hat)
دِ
di
(in divine)
تِ
ti
(in team)
قِ
q/span>i
(in qibla)
خِ
ȟi
(in hill)
فِ
fi
(in Finger)
ىِ
ye
(in Yellow)
فُ
fo
(in Food)
ظُ
żo
(in the name Zorro)
لُ
lo
(in Lose)
رُ
ro
(in Root)
حُ
hu
(in Hoot)
صُ
su
(in Subject)